Nesse RM, Cameron OG, Curtis GC, McCann DS, Huber-Smith MS: Adrenergic function in patients with panic anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41:771-776, 1984.

This article demonstrates that the agitation experineced by some patients as they begin antidepressant treatment is not due to beta receptor sensitivity; in fact, beta sensitivity is DECREASED in patients with anxiety disorders.

Nesse RM, Curtis GC, Thyer BA, McCann D, Huber-Smith, MJ: Endocrine and cardiovascular responses during phobic anxiety. Psychosomatic Medicine, 47:320-332, 1985.

This article provides the definitive summary of my work on neuroendocrime responses to intense anxiety induced ethically by flooding therapy. The most interesting result is the inconsistency of individual responses. Some people had no cortisol response despite obviously massive subjective anxiety and catecholamine responses. Others had cortisol responses dissociated from other endocrine changes. The deep conclusion I drew from this is that there is no tightly wired consistent neuroendocrine response to intense subjective anxiety.

Nesse RM, Bhatnagar S, Young, E: The evolutionary origins and functions of the stress response, The Encyclopedia of Stress, Second Edition, Edited by George Fink, Academic Press: San Diego, 2007, 965-970. The stress response exists because it is useful. Responses to subjective distress are an epiphenomenon that is by no means a reliable indicator of either subjective distress or objective difficulty.


Cameron OC, Smith CB, Hollingsworth PJ, Nesse RM, Curtis GC: Platelet alpha-2 adrenergic receptor binding and plasma catecholamines before and during imipramine treatment in patients with panic anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry 41:1144-1148, 1985.

Starkman MN, Cameron OG, Nesse RM, Zelnik T: Peripheral catecholamine levels and the symptoms of anxiety: studies in patients with and without pheochromocytoma. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52: 129-142, 1990.

Curtis GC, Nesse RM, Buxton M, Wright J, Lippman D: Flooding in vivo as research tool and treatment methods for phobias: A preliminary report. Comparative Psychiatry, 17:153-160, 1976.

Curtis GC, Buxton M, Lippman D, Nesse RM, Wright J: "Flooding in vivo" during the circadian phase of minimal cortisol secretion: Anxiety and therapeutic success without adrenal cortical activation.Biological Psychiatry, 11:101-107, 1976.

Curtis GC, Nesse RM, Buxton M, Lippman D: Anxiety and plasma cortisol at the crest of the circadian cycle: Reappraisal of a classical hypothesis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 40:368-378, 1978.

Curtis GC, Nesse RM, Buxton M, Lippman D: Plasma Growth hormone: Effect of anxiety during flooding in vivo. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136:410-414, 1979.

Nesse RM, Curtis GC, Brown GM, Rubin RT: Anxiety induced by flooding therapy for phobias does not elicit prolactin secretory response. Psychosomatic Medicine, 42:25-31, 1980.

Nesse RM, Curtis GC, Brown GM: Phobic anxiety does not affect plasma levels of thyroid stimulating hormone in man. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 7:69-74, 1982.

Curtis GC, Cameron OG, Nesse RM: The dexamethasone suppression test in panic disorder and agoraphobia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139:1043-1046, 1982.

Huber-smith MJ, Nesse R, Mazhar M, McCann DS. Evaluation of plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications;377:91-9, 1986.

Thyer BA, Parrish RT, Curtis GC, Nesse RM, Cameron OG: Ages of onset of DSM-III anxiety disorders. Comparative Psychiatry, 26:113-122, 1985.

Nesse RM, Cameron OG, Buda AJ, McCann DS, Curtis GC, Huber-Smith M: Urinary catecholamines and mitral valve prolapse in panic anxiety patients. Psychiatry Research, 14:67-74, 1985.

Cameron OG, Nesse RM: Systemic hormonal and physiological abnormalities in anxiety disorders: A review. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 13:287-307, 1988.

Starkman MN, Cameron OG, Nesse RM, Zelnik T: Peripheral catecholamine levels and the symptoms of anxiety: studies in patients with and without pheochromocytoma. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52: 129-142, 1990.

Starkman MN, Zelnik T, Nesse RM, Cameron OC: Anxiety in patients with pheochromocytoma. Archives of Internal Medicine, 145:248-252, 1985.

Even huge catechol levels do not guarantee intense subjective states.

Nesse RM: Evolutionary explanations of emotions. Human Nature, 1: 261-289, 1990.

Abelson, JA, Nesse RM, Vinik, A: Treatment of panic-like attacks with a long-acting analogue of somatostatin. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10: 128-132, 1990.

Abelson, JL, Nesse RM: Cholecystokinin-4 and panic, (letter). Archives of General Psychiatry 47(4): 395, 1990.

Abelson JA, Nesse RM, Vinik A: Stimulation of corticotrophin release by pentagastrin in normal subjects and patients with panic disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 1991; 29:1220-1223.

Abelson JL, Nesse RM: Pentagastric infusions in patients with panic disorder I. Symptoms and cardiovascular responses. Biological Psychiatry 36: 73-83, 1994.

Abelson JL, Nesse RM, Vinik, I, Aaron I: Pentagastric infusions in patients with panic disorder II. Neuroendocrinology. Biological Psychiatry 36: 84-96, 1994.

Abelson JL, Curtis GC, Nesse RN, Fantone R, Pyke RE, Bammert Adams J: The effects of central cholecystokinin receptor blockade on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and symptomatic responses to overnight withdrawal from alprazolam. Biological Psychiatry , 37:56-59, 1995.

Cameron OG, Smith CB, Nesse RM, Hill EM, Hollingsworth PJ, Abelson JA, Hariharan M, Curtis, GC: Platelet Alpha2-Adrenoreceptors, Catecholamines, Hemodynamic Variables, and Anxiety in Panic Patients and Their Asymptomatic Relatives. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58:289-301, 1996.

Abelson JL, Nesse RM, Weg, JG, Curtis GC: Respiratory Psychophysiology and Anxiety: Cognitive Intervention in the Doxapram Model of Panic. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58:302-313, 1996.

Abelson JL, Weg JG, Nesse RN, Curtis, GC: Neuroendocrine responses to laboratory panic: Cognitive intervention in the doxapram model. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 21(4):375-90, 1996.

Young EA, Nesse RM, Weder, A, & Julius, S Anxiety and cardiovascular reactivity in the Tecumseh population. Journal of Hypertension, 16(1727-1733), 1998.

Abelson JL, Weg JG, Nesse RM, Curtis GC. Persistent respiratory irregularity in patients with panic disorder. Biol Psychiatry.Apr 1;49(7):588-95, 2001.